The Age of Augustus. McGinn, Prostitution, Sexuality and the Law in Ancient Rome Oxford University Press, , pp.
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The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman opho.be was characterized by the Gaulish adoption or adaptation of Roman culture, morals and way of life in a uniquely Gaulish context. The well-studied meld of cultures in Gaul gives historians a model against which to compare and contrast parallel developments of Romanization in other.
- Ancient Rome: From the earliest times down to A.
- Main article: Overthrow of the Roman monarchy.
- Hacia el 32 a.
- Oxford University Press, , p.
Res publica, la république romaine (-509 ; -27) Le mot République vient du latin Res publica, qui signifie la chose publique. Cela veut dire que c'est le peuple qui exerce le pouvoir. Ainsi, le gouvernement appartient-il aux citoyens.
Impero romano - Wikipedia
In particolare per tre ragioni: sia perché non vi fu mai una vera e propria fine formale della Res publica Romana, le cui istituzioni non furono mai abolite, ma semplicemente persero il potere effettivo a vantaggio dell'imperatore; sia perché nei 422 anni tra esse compresi si alternarono due fasi caratterizzate da forme di organizzazione e legittimazione del potere imperiale profondamente ...
Gli istituti che caratterizzano la res publica romana e attraverso le quali il populus esprimeva la propria sovranità sono le magistrature, organizzate nelle tappe del cursus honorum; il Senato, risalente già alla fase monarchica ma formato, in epoca storica, da ex-magistrati, con compiti di controllo e supervisione della vita politica; le assemblee del popolo (comizi centuriati, comizi.
III a. De este modo los organismos de gobierno fueron:. Los tribunos de la plebe gozaban de inviolabilidad para cumplir con mayor eficacia sus funciones y su nombramiento data del a. Para poder gobernar tan amplio territorio de una manera organizada desarrollaron un conjunto de leyes conocidas como el derecho romano. C y por las guerras civiles por la igualdad. Finalmente, terminaron copiando a los griegos con su antropomorfismo dioses con forma humana.
En el a. La primera a. En el siglo 1 a. El primer triunvirato 60 a. An embassy carrying an ultimatum was sent to Carthage, asking its senate to condemn Hannibal's deeds.
The Carthaginian refusal started the Second Punic War. Initially, the plan of the Republic was to carry war outside Italy, by sending the consuls Publius Cornelius Scipio to Hispania, and Sempronius Longus to Africa, while their naval superiority prevented Carthage from attacking from the sea. In May , he indeed crossed the Ebro with a large army of about , soldiers and 37 elephants. Hannibal then marched south and won three outstanding victories.
The first one was on the banks of the Trebia in December , where he defeated the other consul Sempronius Longus thanks to his brother Mago, who had concealed some elite troops behind the legions and attacked them from the rear once fighting Hannibal.
Hannibal then ravaged the country around Arretium to lure the new consul Gaius Flaminius into a trap, at the Lake Trasimene. He had hidden his troops in the hills surrounding the lake and attacked Flaminius when he was cornered on the shore.
This clever ambush resulted in the death of the consul and the complete destruction of his army of 30, men.
In terms of casualties, the Battle of Cannae was the worst defeat in the history of Rome: only 14, soldiers escaped; Paullus was killed as well as 80 senators.
These disasters triggered a wave of defection among Roman allies, with the rebellions of the Samnites, Oscans, Lucanians, and Greek cities of Southern Italy. His attack on Apollonia started the First Macedonian War. In , Hiero II of Syracuse died of old age, and his young grandson Hieronymus broke the long alliance with Rome to side with Carthage. At this desperate point, the aggressive strategy against Hannibal advocated by the Scipiones was abandoned in favour of delaying tactics that avoided direct confrontation with him.
Its main proponents were the consuls Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, nicknamed Cunctator "the delayer" , Claudius Marcellus , and Fulvius Flaccus. The " Fabian Strategy " favoured a slow reconquest of the lost territories, since Hannibal could not be everywhere to defend them. However, in the consuls Claudius Marcellus and Quinctius Crispinus were ambushed and killed near Venusia. In Hispania, the situation was overall much better for Rome. In however, Hasdrubal and Mago Barca successfully returned the Celtiberian tribes that supported the Scipiones, and attacked them simultaneously at the Battle of the Upper Baetis , in which the Scipiones brothers died.
He soon showed outstanding skills as a commander, by winning a series of battles with ingenious tactics. In , he took Carthago Nova , the main Punic base in Hispania, then defeated Hasdrubal at the Battle of Baecula Since he could not use ships, he followed the same route as his brother through the Alps, but this time the surprise effect was gone. The consuls Livius Salinator and Claudius Nero were awaiting him and won the Battle of the Metaurus , where Hasdrubal died.
The attrition campaign had indeed worked well: Hannibal's troops were now depleted; he only had one elephant left Surus and retreated to Bruttium , on the defensive.
In Greece, Rome contained Philip V without devoting too many forces, by setting an alliance with the Aetolian League , Sparta , and Pergamon , which also prevented Philip from aiding Hannibal. The war resulted in a stalemate, with the Treaty of Phoenice signed in In Hispania, Scipio continued his triumphal campaign at the battles of Carmona in , and Ilipa now Seville in , which ended the Punic threat on the peninsula.
Scipio landed in Africa in He took Utica , then won the Battle of the Great Plains , which prompted Carthage to recall Hannibal from Italy and open peace negotiations with Rome. The talks nevertheless failed because Scipio wanted to impose harsher terms on Carthage, in order to avoid it from rising again as a threat to Rome.
Hannibal was therefore sent to face Scipio at Zama. Scipio could now use the heavy Numidian cavalry of Massinissa — which had hitherto been so successful against Rome — to rout the Punic wings, then flank the infantry, as Hannibal had done at Cannae.
Defeated for the first time, Hannibal convinced the Carthaginian Senate to pay the war indemnity, which was even harsher than that of 10, talents in 50 instalments. In effect, Carthage was condemned to be a minor power, while Rome recovered from a desperate situation to dominate the Western Mediterranean. Rome's preoccupation with its war with Carthage provided an opportunity for Philip V of the kingdom of Macedonia , located in the north of the Greek peninsula , to attempt to extend his power westward.
Philip sent ambassadors to Hannibal's camp in Italy, to negotiate an alliance as common enemies of Rome. The past century had seen the Greek world dominated by the three primary successor kingdoms of Alexander the Great 's empire: Ptolemaic Egypt , Macedonia and the Seleucid Empire. In , internal problems led to a weakening of Egypt's position, thereby disrupting the power balance among the successor states.
Macedonia and the Seleucid Empire agreed to an alliance to conquer and divide Egypt. Our primary source about these events, the surviving works of Polybius, do not state Rome's reason for getting involved.
Rome gave Philip an ultimatum to cease his campaigns against Rome's new Greek allies. Doubting Rome's strength a reasonable doubt, given Rome's performance in the First Macedonian War Philip ignored the request, and Rome sent an army of Romans and Greek allies, beginning the Second Macedonian War. In , the Romans decisively defeated Philip at the Battle of Cynoscephalae , and Philip was forced to give up his recent Greek conquests. With Egypt and Macedonia weakened, the Seleucid Empire made increasingly aggressive and successful attempts to conquer the entire Greek world.
Fearing the worst, the Romans began a major mobilization, all but pulling out of recently pacified Spain and Gaul. After initial fighting that revealed serious Seleucid weaknesses, the Seleucids tried to turn the Roman strength against them at the Battle of Thermopylae as they believed the Spartans had done centuries earlier.
Although they still controlled a great deal of territory, this defeat marked the decline of their empire, as they were to begin facing increasingly aggressive subjects in the east the Parthians and the west the Greeks.
Their empire disintegrated into a rump over the course of the next century, when it was eclipsed by Pontus. Following Magnesia, Rome again withdrew from Greece, assuming or hoping that the lack of a major Greek power would ensure a stable peace.
In fact, it did the opposite. In Philip died. Perseus initially had some success against the Romans. However, Rome responded by sending a stronger army. This second consular army decisively defeated the Macedonians at the Battle of Pydna in   and the Macedonians duly capitulated, ending the war.
Convinced now that the Greeks and therefore the rest of the region would not have peace if left alone, Rome decided to establish its first permanent foothold in the Greek world, and divided the Kingdom of Macedonia into four client republics. Yet, Macedonian agitation continued.
The Fourth Macedonian War , to BC, was fought against a Macedonian pretender to the throne who was again destabilizing Greece by trying to re-establish the old kingdom. The Romans swiftly defeated the Macedonians at the Second battle of Pydna. The Achaean League chose this moment to fight Rome but was swiftly defeated. In the same year as the destruction of Carthage , Corinth was besieged and destroyed in the Battle of Corinth BC , which led to the league's surrender.
The city was besieged, stormed, and completely destroyed. Ultimately, all of Carthage's North African and Iberian territories were acquired by Rome. Note that "Carthage" was not an 'empire', but a league of Punic colonies port cities in the western Mediterranean like the 1st and 2nd Athenian "Attic" leagues, under leadership of Carthage.
Punic Carthage was gone, but the other Punic cities in the western Mediterranean flourished under Roman rule. Rome's rapid expansion destabilized its social organization and triggered unrest in the heart of the Republic, which ultimately led to political violence, unrest in the provinces, and ultimately a breakdown in the traditional social relations of Rome that created the Augustan Empire.
The period is marked by the rise of strongmen Marius , Sulla , Pompey , Crassus , and Julius Caesar , who turned military success into political power. In , the first slave uprising, known as the First Servile War , broke out in Sicily. After initial successes, the slaves led by Eunus and Cleon were annihilated by the consul Publius Rupilius in BC. In this context, Tiberius Gracchus was elected tribune in BC.
He attempted to enact a law which would have limited the amount of land that any individual could own. The aristocrats, who stood to lose an enormous amount of money, were bitterly opposed to this proposal. Tiberius submitted this law to the Plebeian Council , but the law was vetoed by a tribune named Marcus Octavius. Tiberius then used the Plebeian Council to impeach Octavius. The theory, that a representative of the people ceases to be one when he acts against the wishes of the people, was counter to Roman constitutional theory.
If carried to its logical end, this theory would remove all constitutional restraints on the popular will, and put the state under the absolute control of a temporary popular majority. Tiberius' brother Gaius was elected tribune in Gaius Gracchus ' ultimate goal was to weaken the senate and to strengthen the democratic forces.
Both devices would allow the Senate to bypass the ordinary due process rights that all citizens had. Gaius outlawed the judicial commissions, and declared the senatus consultum ultimum to be unconstitutional. Gaius then proposed a law which would grant citizenship rights to Rome's Italian allies.
This last proposal was not popular with the plebeians and he lost much of his support. In , the province of Gallia Narbonensis was established after the victory of Quintus Fabius Maximus over a coalition of Arverni and Allobroges in southern Gaul in The city of Narbo was founded there in by Lucius Licinius Crassus. The Jugurthine War of — was fought between Rome and Jugurtha of the North African kingdom of Numidia.
It constituted the final Roman pacification of Northern Africa,  after which Rome largely ceased expansion on the continent after reaching natural barriers of desert and mountain. Following Jugurtha's usurpation of the throne of Numidia,  a loyal ally of Rome since the Punic Wars,  Rome felt compelled to intervene. Jugurtha impudently bribed the Romans into accepting his usurpation. Jugurtha was finally captured not in battle but by treachery. In , King Micipsa of Numidia current-day Algeria and Tunisia died.
He was succeeded by two legitimate sons, Adherbal and Hiempsal , and an illegitimate son, Jugurtha. Micipsa divided his kingdom between these three sons. Jugurtha, however, turned on his brothers, killing Hiempsal and driving Adherbal out of Numidia. Adherbal fled to Rome for assistance, and initially Rome mediated a division of the country between the two brothers.
Eventually, Jugurtha renewed his offensive, leading to a long and inconclusive war with Rome. He also bribed several Roman commanders, and at least two tribunes, before and during the war.
His nemesis, Gaius Marius , a legate from a virtually unknown provincial family, returned from the war in Numidia and was elected consul in over the objections of the aristocratic senators. Marius invaded Numidia and brought the war to a quick end, capturing Jugurtha in the process. The apparent incompetence of the Senate, and the brilliance of Marius, had been put on full display.
The Germanic tribes of the Cimbri and the Teutons  migrated from northern Europe into Rome's northern territories,  and clashed with Rome and her allies. In 91 the Social War broke out between Rome and its former allies in Italy when the allies complained that they shared the risk of Rome's military campaigns, but not its rewards. The army, however, was not defeated and won.
One of Marius' old quaestors, Lucius Cornelius Sulla , had been elected consul for the year, and was ordered by the senate to assume command of the war against Mithridates. Marius had a tribune revoke Sulla's command of the war against Mithridates. Sulla brought his army back to Italy and marched on Rome. Sulla was so angry at Marius' tribune that he passed a law intended to permanently weaken the tribunate.
With Sulla gone, the faction of Marius and Lucius Cornelius Cinna soon took control of the city. During the period in which the Marians controlled the city, they flouted convention by re-electing Marius consul several times without observing the customary ten-year interval between offices. Sulla soon made peace with Mithridates. In 83, he returned to Rome, overcame all resistance, and recaptured the city. In the Battle of the Colline Gate  at the very door of the city of Rome, a Roman army under Sulla bested an army of the Marius supporters and entered the city.
Sulla's actions marked a watershed in the willingness of Roman troops to wage war against one another that was to pave the way for the wars which ultimately overthrew the Republic, and caused the founding of the Roman Empire. As such, he sought to strengthen the aristocracy, and by extension the senate. He died in Mithridates the Great was the ruler of Pontus ,  a large kingdom in Asia Minor modern Turkey , from to The Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla forced Mithridates out of Greece proper, but then had to return to Italy to answer the internal threat posed by his rival, Gaius Marius.
A peace was made between Rome and Pontus, but this proved only a temporary lull. The Second Mithridatic War began when Rome tried to annex a province that Mithridates claimed as his own. In the Third Mithridatic War , first Lucius Licinius Lucullus and then Pompey the Great were sent against Mithridates and his Armenian ally Tigranes the Great. The Mediterranean had at this time fallen into the hands of pirates,  largely from Cilicia.
Pompey was nominated as commander of a special naval task force to campaign against the pirates. In 77, the senate sent one of Sulla's former lieutenants, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus "Pompey the Great" , to put down an uprising in Hispania.
By 71, Pompey returned to Rome after having completed his mission. Upon their return, Pompey and Crassus found the populares party fiercely attacking Sulla's constitution.
Around 66, a movement to use constitutional, or at least peaceful, means to address the plight of various classes began. The movement coalesced under an aristocrat named Lucius Sergius Catilina. The movement was based in the town of Faesulae, which was a natural hotbed of agrarian agitation. The conspiracy was set in motion in As a result, the top conspirators in Rome including at least one former consul were executed by authorisation of dubious constitutionality of the senate, and the planned uprising was disrupted.
Cicero then sent an army, which cut Catiline's forces to pieces. The prior 70 years had witnessed a gradual erosion in senatorial powers. The violent nature of the conspiracy, in conjunction with the senate's skill in disrupting it, did a great deal to repair the senate's image. In 62, Pompey returned victorious from Asia. The Senate, elated by its successes against Catiline, refused to ratify the arrangements that Pompey had made. Pompey, in effect, became powerless.
Thus, when Julius Caesar returned from a governorship in Spain in 61, he found it easy to make an arrangement with Pompey. Caesar and Pompey, along with Marcus Licinius Crassus , established a private agreement, now known as the First Triumvirate. Under the agreement, Pompey's arrangements would be ratified. Caesar would be elected consul in 59, and would then serve as governor of Gaul for five years. Crassus was promised a future consulship.
Caesar's consular colleague in 59, Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus , was an extreme aristocrat. Caesar submitted the laws that he had promised Pompey to the assemblies. Bibulus attempted to obstruct the enactment of these laws, and so Caesar used violent means to ensure their passage. He facilitated the election of the former patrician Publius Clodius Pulcher to the tribunate for Clodius was a bitter opponent of Cicero because Cicero had testified against him in a sacrilege case.
Clodius attempted to try Cicero for executing citizens without a trial during the Catiline conspiracy, resulting in Cicero going into self-imposed exile and his house in Rome being burnt down.
Clodius also passed a bill that forced Cato to lead the invasion of Cyprus which would keep him away from Rome for some years. Clodius also passed a law to expand the previous partial grain subsidy to a fully free grain dole for citizens. During his term as praetor in the Iberian Peninsula modern Portugal and Spain , Pompey's contemporary Julius Caesar defeated two local tribes in battle.
When two local tribes began to migrate on a route that would take them near not into the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul, Caesar had the barely sufficient excuse he needed for his Gallic Wars , fought between 58 and Caesar defeated large armies at major battles 58 and In 55 and 54 he made two expeditions into Britain , the first Roman to do so.
Caesar then defeated a union of Gauls at the Battle of Alesia ,  completing the Roman conquest of Transalpine Gaul. By 50, all of Gaul lay in Roman hands. Clodius formed armed gangs that terrorised the city and eventually began to attack Pompey's followers, who in response funded counter-gangs formed by Titus Annius Milo. The political alliance of the triumvirate was crumbling. Domitius Ahenobarbus ran for the consulship in 55 promising to take Caesar's command from him.
Eventually, the triumvirate was renewed at Lucca. Pompey and Crassus were promised the consulship in 55, and Caesar's term as governor was extended for five years. Beginning in the summer of 54, a wave of political corruption and violence swept Rome. In 53, Crassus launched a Roman invasion of the Parthian Empire modern Iraq and Iran.
After initial successes,  he marched his army deep into the desert;  but here his army was cut off deep in enemy territory, surrounded and slaughtered at the Battle of Carrhae in which Crassus himself perished. The death of Crassus removed some of the balance in the Triumvirate and, consequently, Caesar and Pompey began to move apart.
While Caesar was fighting in Gaul, Pompey proceeded with a legislative agenda for Rome that revealed that he was at best ambivalent towards Caesar  and perhaps now covertly allied with Caesar's political enemies.
Pompey's wife, Julia, who was Caesar's daughter, died in childbirth. This event severed the last remaining bond between Pompey and Caesar. In 51, some Roman senators demanded that Caesar not be permitted to stand for consul unless he turned over control of his armies to the state, which would have left Caesar defenceless before his enemies.
Caesar chose civil war over laying down his command and facing trial. On 1 January 49, an agent of Caesar presented an ultimatum to the senate. The ultimatum was rejected, and the senate then passed a resolution which declared that if Caesar did not lay down his arms by July of that year, he would be considered an enemy of the Republic.
On 7 January of 49, the senate passed a senatus consultum ultimum , which vested Pompey with dictatorial powers. Pompey's army, however, was composed largely of untested conscripts. On 10 January, Caesar with his veteran army crossed the river Rubicon , the legal boundary of Roman Italy beyond which no commander might bring his army, in violation of Roman laws, and by the spring of 49 swept down the Italian peninsula towards Rome.
Caesar's rapid advance forced Pompey, the consuls and the senate to abandon Rome for Greece. Caesar entered the city unopposed. Afterwards Caesar turned his attention to the Pompeian stronghold of Hispania modern Spain  but decided to tackle Pompey himself in Greece. Pompey's death did not end the civil war, as Caesar's many enemies fought on. In 46 Caesar lost perhaps as much as a third of his army, but ultimately came back to defeat the Pompeian army of Metellus Scipio in the Battle of Thapsus , after which the Pompeians retreated yet again to Hispania.
Caesar then defeated the combined Pompeian forces at the Battle of Munda. With Pompey defeated and order restored, Caesar wanted to achieve undisputed control over the government.
The powers which he gave himself were later assumed by his imperial successors. Caesar held both the dictatorship and the tribunate, and alternated between the consulship and the proconsulship. This made his person sacrosanct, gave him the power to veto the senate, and allowed him to dominate the Plebeian Council.
In 46, Caesar was given censorial powers,  which he used to fill the senate with his own partisans. While the assemblies continued to meet, he submitted all candidates to them for election, as well as all bills for enactment. Thus, the group became powerless and were unable to oppose him.
Caesar began to prepare for a war against the Parthian Empire. Since his absence from Rome would limit his ability to install his own consuls, he passed a law that allowed him to appoint all magistrates, and later all consuls and tribunes. This transformed the magistrates from representatives of the people to representatives of the dictator.
Caesar was now the primary figure of the Roman state, enforcing and entrenching his powers. His enemies feared that he had ambitions to become an autocratic ruler.
Arguing that the Roman Republic was in danger, a group of senators led by Gaius Cassius and Marcus Brutus hatched a conspiracy and assassinated Caesar at a meeting of the Senate on 15 March Many were afraid that Caesar would soon resurrect the monarchy and declare himself king.
Others feared loss of property or prestige as Caesar carried out his land reforms in favor of the landless classes. Virtually all the conspirators fled the city after Caesar's death in fear of retaliation. The civil wars that followed destroyed what was left of the Republic. Known as the Second Triumvirate ,  they held powers that were nearly identical to the powers that Caesar had held under his constitution.
As such, the Senate and assemblies remained powerless, even after Caesar had been assassinated. The conspirators were then defeated at the Battle of Philippi in Although Brutus defeated Octavian, Antony defeated Cassius, who committed suicide.
Brutus did likewise soon afterwards. Following Philippi, Rome's territories were divided between the triumvirs but the agreement was fragile and could not withstand internal jealousies and ambitions.
Following the defeat of the Sicilian revolt , led by Sextus Pompey , a dispute between Lepidus and Octavian regarding the allocation of lands broke out. Octavian accused Lepidus of usurping power in Sicily and of attempted rebellion and, in 36 BC, Lepidus was forced into exile in Circeii and stripped of all his offices except that of Pontifex Maximus.
His former provinces were awarded to Octavian. Antony, meanwhile, married Caesar's lover, Cleopatra of Ptolemaic Egypt , intending to use the fabulously wealthy Egypt as a base to dominate Rome.
The ambitious Octavian built a power base of patronage and then launched a campaign against Antony. This final civil war culminated in the latter's defeat at Actium in 31 BC; Octavian's forces would then chase Antony and Cleoptra to Alexandria , where they would both commit suicide in 30 BC. Octavian was granted a series of special powers including sole "imperium" within the city of Rome, permanent consular powers and credit for every Roman military victory, since all future generals were assumed to be acting under his command.
In 27 Octavian was granted the use of the names "Augustus", indicating his primary status above all other Romans, "Princeps", which he used to refer to himself as in public, and he adopted the title "Imperator Caesar" making him the first Roman Emperor. The constitutional history of the Roman Republic began with the revolution which overthrew the monarchy in BC, and ended with constitutional reforms that transformed the Republic into what would effectively be the Roman Empire, in 27 BC.
The Constitution of the Roman Republic was a constantly-evolving, unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent, by which the government and its politics operated. The senate's ultimate authority derived from the esteem and prestige of the senators. The senate passed decrees, which were called senatus consulta. These were officially "advice" from the senate to a magistrate. In practice, however, they were usually followed by the magistrates.
Though it technically had no official role in the management of military conflict, the senate ultimately was the force that oversaw such affairs. This was due to the senate's explicit power over the state's budget and in military affairs.
Towards the end of the Republic, the senate could enact a senatus consultum ultimum in times of emergency, instead of appointing a dictator. The legal status of Roman citizenship was limited and was a vital prerequisite to possessing many important legal rights such as the right to trial and appeal, to marry, to vote, to hold office, to enter binding contracts, and to special tax exemptions.
An adult male citizen with the full complement of legal and political rights was called "optimo jure. There were two types of legislative assemblies. The first was the comitia "committees" ,  which were assemblies of all optimo jure. The second was the concilia "councils" , which were assemblies of specific groups of optimo jure.
Citizens were organized on the basis of centuries and tribes , which would each gather into their own assemblies. The Comitia Centuriata "Centuriate Assembly" was the assembly of the centuries i. The president of the Comitia Centuriata was usually a consul. The centuries would vote, one at a time, until a measure received support from a majority of the centuries. The Comitia Centuriata would elect magistrates who had the imperium powers consuls and praetors. It also elected censors.
The assembly of the tribes i. The tribes were not ethnic or kinship groups, but rather geographical subdivisions. While it did not pass many laws, the Comitia Tributa did elect quaestors, curule aediles , and military tribunes.
They elected their own officers, plebeian tribunes and plebeian aediles. Usually a plebeian tribune would preside over the assembly. Each republican magistrate held certain constitutional powers. Each was assigned a provincia by the Senate. This was the scope of that particular office holder's authority.
It could apply to a geographic area or to a particular responsibility or task. Strictly speaking, it was the authority to command a military force. In reality, however, it carried broad authority in the other public spheres such as diplomacy, and the justice system. In extreme cases, those with the imperium power were able to sentence Roman Citizens to death.
All magistrates also had the power of coercitio coercion. This was used by magistrates to maintain public order by imposing punishment for crimes. This power could also be used to obstruct political opponents. One check on a magistrate's power was called Collega collegiality. Each magisterial office would be held concurrently by at least two people. Another such check was provocatio. While in Rome, all citizens were protected from coercion, by provocatio , which was an early form of due process.
It was a precursor to habeas corpus. If any magistrate tried to use the powers of the state against a citizen, that citizen could appeal the decision of the magistrate to a tribune. In addition, once a magistrate's one-year term of office expired, he would have to wait ten years before serving in that office again. This created problems for some consuls and praetors, and these magistrates would occasionally have their imperium extended.
In effect, they would retain the powers of the office as a promagistrate , without officially holding that office. The consuls of the Roman Republic were the highest ranking ordinary magistrates. Each served for one year. Consular powers included the kings' former "power to command" imperium and appointment of new senators. Consuls had supreme power in both civil and military matters.
While in the city of Rome, the consuls were the head of the Roman government. They would preside over the senate and the assemblies. While abroad, each consul would command an army. Praetors administered civil law  and commanded provincial armies. Every five years, two censors were elected for an month term, during which they would conduct a census. During the census, they could enroll citizens in the senate, or purge them from the senate. The quaestors would usually assist the consuls in Rome, and the governors in the provinces.
Their duties were often financial. Since the tribunes were considered to be the embodiment of the plebeians, they were sacrosanct. Their sacrosanctity was enforced by a pledge, taken by the plebeians, to kill any person who harmed or interfered with a tribune during his term of office. It was a capital offense to harm a tribune, to disregard his veto, or to otherwise interfere with him.
When the dictator's term ended, constitutional government would be restored. Rome's military secured Rome's territory and borders, and helped to impose tribute on conquered peoples. Rome's armies had a formidable reputation; but Rome also "produced [its] share of incompetents"  and catastrophic defeats. Nevertheless, it was generally the fate of Rome's greatest enemies, such as Pyrrhus and Hannibal ,  to win early battles but lose the war.
During this period, Roman soldiers seem to have been modelled after those of the Etruscans to the north,  who themselves are believed to have copied their style of warfare from the Greeks.
Traditionally, the introduction of the phalanx formation into the Roman army is ascribed to the city's penultimate king, Servius Tullius ruled — Each subsequent rank consisted of those with less wealth and poorer equipment than the one before it.
The phalanx was effective in large, open spaces, but not on the hilly terrain of the central Italian peninsula. During this period, an army formation of around 5, men of both heavy and light infantry was known as a legion. The manipular army was based upon social class, age and military experience. They were typically deployed into three discrete lines based on the three heavy infantry types:.
The three infantry classes  may have retained some slight parallel to social divisions within Roman society, but at least officially the three lines were based upon age and experience rather than social class.
Young, unproven men would serve in the first line, older men with some military experience would serve in the second line, and veteran troops of advanced age and experience would serve in the third line. The heavy infantry of the maniples were supported by a number of light infantry and cavalry troops, typically horsemen per manipular legion. There was an additional class of troops who followed the army without specific martial roles and were deployed to the rear of the third line.
Their role in accompanying the army was primarily to supply any vacancies that might occur in the maniples. The light infantry consisted of 1, unarmoured skirmishing troops drawn from the youngest and lower social classes. They were armed with a sword and a small shield, as well as several light javelins. Rome's military confederation with the other peoples of the Italian peninsula meant that half of Rome's army was provided by the Socii , such as the Etruscans, Umbrians, Apulians, Campanians, Samnites, Lucani, Bruttii, and the various southern Greek cities.
Polybius states that Rome could draw on , men at the beginning of the Second Punic War, of which , were infantry and 70, met the requirements for cavalry. Rome's Italian allies would be organized in alae , or wings , roughly equal in manpower to the Roman legions, though with cavalry instead of A small navy had operated at a fairly low level after about , but it was massively upgraded about forty years later, during the First Punic War.
Once completed, it could accommodate up to , sailors and embarked troops for battle. The navy thereafter declined in size. During the 2nd century, Roman territory saw an overall decline in population,  partially due to the huge losses incurred during various wars. This was accompanied by severe social stresses and the greater collapse of the middle classes. As a result, the Roman state was forced to arm its soldiers at the expense of the state, which it did not have to do in the past.
The distinction between the heavy infantry types began to blur, perhaps because the state was now assuming the responsibility of providing standard-issue equipment. In a process known as the Marian reforms , Roman consul Gaius Marius carried out a programme of reform of the Roman military.
This move formalised and concluded a gradual process that had been growing for centuries, of removing property requirements for military service. The heavy infantry legionaries were drawn from citizen stock, while non-citizens came to dominate the ranks of the light infantry.
The army's higher-level officers and commanders were still drawn exclusively from the Roman aristocracy. Unlike earlier in the Republic, legionaries were no longer fighting on a seasonal basis to protect their land. Instead, they received standard pay, and were employed by the state on a fixed-term basis.
The main legionary sub-unit was a cohort of approximately infantrymen, further divided into six centuries of 80 men each. Cavalry were used as scouts and dispatch riders, rather than as battlefield forces. Each legion was normally partnered with an approximately equal number of allied non-Roman troops. Following Rome's subjugation of the Mediterranean, its navy declined in size although it would undergo short-term upgrading and revitalisation in the late Republic to meet several new demands.
Julius Caesar assembled a fleet to cross the English Channel and invade Britannia. Pompey raised a fleet to deal with the Cilician pirates who threatened Rome's Mediterranean trading routes. During the civil war that followed, as many as a thousand ships were either constructed or pressed into service from Greek cities. Brutus, co-founder of the Republic, is supposed to have exercised the extreme form of this right when he executed his own sons for treachery.
A form of limited, theoretically voluntary slavery debt bondage, or nexum allowed wealthy creditors to negotiate payment of debt through bonded service. Poor, landless citizens of the lowest class proletarii might contract their sons to a creditor, patron or third party employer to obtain an income, or to pay off family debts.
They could be bought, sold, acquired through warfare, or born and raised within their master's household,. They could also buy their freedom with money saved or the offer of future services as a freedman or woman, and their sons could be eligible for citizenship; this degree of social mobility was unusual in the ancient world. Freed slaves and the master who freed them retained certain legal and moral mutual obligations.
This was the bottom rung of one of Rome's fundamental social and economic institutions, the client-patron relationship. At the top rung were the senatorial families of the landowning nobility, both patrician and plebeian, bound by shifting allegiances and mutual competition. A plebiscite of forbade senators and their sons to engage in substantial trade or money-lending.
Citizen men and citizen women were expected to marry, produce as many children as possible, and improve — or at worst, conserve — their family's wealth, fortune, and public profile. Marriage offered opportunities for political alliance and social advancement. Patricians usually married in a form known as confarreatio , which transferred the bride from her father's absolute control or "hand" manus to that of her husband.
Towards the end of the Republic, the birthrate began to fall among the elite. Some wealthy, childless citizens resorted to adoption to provide male heirs for their estates, and to forge political alliances.
Adoption was subject to the senate's approval; the notoriously unconventional patrician politician Publius Clodius Pulcher had himself and his family adopted into a plebeian clan, so that he could hold a plebeian tribunate. In wartime, plebeian farmers were liable to conscription. Soil fertility varied from place to place, and natural water sources were unevenly distributed throughout the landscape. In good years, a pleb small-holder might trade a small surplus, to meet his family's needs, or to buy the armatures required for his military service.
In other years, crop failure through soil exhaustion, adverse weather, disease or military incursions could lead to poverty, unsupported borrowing, and debt. Later Roman moralists idealised farming as an intrinsically noble occupation: Cincinnatus left off his ploughing reluctantly, to serve as dictator , and returned once his state duties were done.
In law, land taken by conquest was ager publicus public land. In practise, much of it was exploited by the nobility, using slaves rather than free labour. Rome's expansionist wars and colonisations were at least partly driven by the land-hunger of displaced peasants, who must otherwise join the swelling, dependent population of urban plebs. Like the grain-fields of Sicily — seized after the same conflict — it was likely farmed extra-legally by leading landowners, using slave-gangs.
A portion of Sicily's grain harvest was sent to Rome as tribute , for redistribution by the aediles. With the introduction of aqueducts from , suburban market-farms could be supplied with run-off or waste aqueduct water.
Perishable commodities such as flowers for perfumes, and festival garlands , fresh grapes, vegetables and orchard fruits, and small livestock such as pigs and chickens, could be farmed close to municipal and urban markets.
Food surpluses, no matter how obtained, kept prices low. Roman writers have little to say about large-scale stock-breeding, but make passing references to its profitability. Drummond speculates that this focus on agriculture rather than livestock might reflect elite preoccupations with historical grain famines, or long-standing competition between agriculturalists and pastoralists. While agriculture was a seasonal practise, pasturage was a year-round requirement.
Some of Republican Rome's early agricultural legislation sought to balance the competing public grazing rights of small farmers, the farming elite, and transhumant pastoralists, who maintained an ancient right to herd, graze and water their animals between low-lying winter pastures and upland summer pastures.
From the early second century, transhumance was practised on a vast scale, as an investment opportunity. Horses, mules and donkeys were bred as civil and military transport. Pigs bred prolifically, and could be raised at little cost by any small farmer with rights to pannage.
Their central dietary role is reflected by their use as sacrificial victims in domestic cults, funerals, and cults to agricultural deities. Republican Rome's religious practises harked back to Rome's quasi-mythical history.
Each king thereafter was credited with some form of divinely approved innovation, adaptation or reform. Romans acknowledged the existence of innumerable deities who controlled the natural world and human affairs.
Every individual, occupation and location had a protective tutelary deity , or sometimes several. Each was associated with a particular, highly prescriptive form of prayer and sacrifice.
Piety pietas was the correct, dutiful and timely performance of such actions. The well-being of each Roman household was thought to depend on daily cult to its Lares and Penates guardian deities, or spirits , ancestors, and the divine generative essence embodied within its pater familias. A family which neglected its religious responsibilities could not expect to prosper. The well-being of the Roman state depended on its state deities, whose opinions and will could be discerned by priests and magistrates, trained in augury, haruspicy , oracles and the interpretation of omens.
Impieties in state religion could produce expressions of divine wrath such as social unrest, wars, famines and epidemics, vitiate the political process, render elections null and void, and lead to the abandonment of planned treaties, wars and any government business. Accidental errors could be remedied by repeating the rite correctly, or by an additional sacrifice; outright sacrilege threatened the bonds between the human and divine, and carried the death penalty.
As divine retribution was invoked in the lawful swearing of oaths and vows, oath-breakers forfeited their right to divine protection, and might be killed with impunity. Roman religious authorities were unconcerned with personal beliefs or privately funded cults, unless they offended natural or divine laws, or undermined the mos maiorum roughly, "the way of the ancestors" ; the relationship between gods and mortals should be sober, contractual, and of mutual benefit.
Undignified grovelling, excessive enthusiasm superstitio and secretive practises were "weak minded" and morally suspect. Private cult organisations that seemed to threaten Rome's political and priestly hierarchy were investigated by the Senate, with advice from the priestly colleges. The cult organisation was ferociously suppressed , and its deity was absorbed within the official cult to Rome's own wine-god, Liber.
For example, king Servius Tullius had established an Aventine temple to Diana as a Roman focus for the Latin League. The gods were thought to communicate their wrath ira deorum through prodigies unnatural or aberrant phenomena. In the same period, Rome recruited the "Trojan" Magna Mater Great Mother of the Gods to the Roman cause, "Hellenised" the native Roman cult to Ceres ; and took control of the Bacchanalia festival in Rome and its allied territories.
Starting in the mid-Republican era, some leading Romans publicly displayed special, sometimes even intimate relationships with particular deities. For instance, Scipio Africanus claimed Jupiter as a personal mentor. Some gentes claimed a divine descent, often thanks to a false etymology of their name; the Caecilii Metelli pretended to descend from Vulcan through his son Caeculus , the Mamilii from Circe through her granddaughter Mamilia, the Julii Caesares and the Aemilii from Venus through her grandsons Iulus and Aemylos.
In the 1st century, Sulla , Pompey , and Caesar made competing claims for Venus' favour. With the abolition of monarchy, some of its sacral duties were shared by the consuls, while others passed to a Republican rex sacrorum king of the sacred rites" , a patrician "king", elected for life, with great prestige but no executive or kingly powers. As every family's pater familias was responsible for his family's cult activities, he was effectively the senior priest of his own household.
Patrician families, in particular the Cornelii , Postumii and Valerii , monopolised the leading state priesthoods: the flamines of Jupiter , Mars and Quirinus , as well as the pontifices. The patrician Flamen Dialis employed the "greater auspices" auspicia maiora to consult with Jupiter on significant matters of State.
Twelve "lesser flaminates" Flamines minores , were open to plebeians, or reserved to them. They included a Flamen Cerealis in service of Ceres , goddess of grain and growth, and protector of plebeian laws and tribunes.
Eventually, the office of pontifex maximus became a de facto consular prerogative. Some cults may have been exclusively female; for example, the rites of the Good Goddess Bona Dea. Towards the end of the second Punic War, Rome rewarded priestesses of Demeter from Graeca Magna with Roman citizenship for training respectable, leading matrons as sacerdotes of "Greek rites" to Ceres.
The Vestals also made the sacrificial mola salsa employed in many State rituals, and represent an essential link between domestic and state religion. Rome's survival was thought to depend on their sacred status and ritual purity. Vestals found guilty of inchastity were "willingly" buried alive, to expiate their offence and avoid the imposition of blood-guilt on those who inflicted the punishment. Rome's major public temples were contained within the city's sacred, augural boundary pomerium , which had supposedly been marked out by Romulus, with Jupiter's approval.
The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus "Jupiter, Best and Greatest" stood on the Capitoline Hill. Among the settled areas outside the pomerium was the nearby Aventine Hill.
It was traditionally associated with Romulus' unfortunate twin, Remus , and in later history with the Latins, and the Roman plebs. The Aventine seems to have functioned as a place for the introduction of "foreign" deities.
Later introductions include Summanus , c. Romulus was said to have pitched his augural tent atop the Palatine. Beneath its southern slopes ran the sacred way , next to the former palace of the kings Regia , the House of the Vestals and Temple of Vesta. Close by were the Lupercal shrine and the cave where Romulus and Remus were said to have been suckled by the she-wolf. On the flat area between the Aventine and Palatine was the Circus Maximus , which hosted chariot races and religious games.
Its several shrines and temples included those to Rome's indigenous sun god, Sol , the moon-goddess Luna , the grain-storage god, Consus , and the obscure goddess Murcia. A temple to Hercules stood in the Forum Boarium , near the Circus starting gate. Every district Vicus of the city had a crossroads shrine to its own protective Lares. Whereas Republican and thereafter, Imperial Romans marked the passage of years with the names of their ruling consuls, their calendars marked the anniversaries of religious foundations to particular deities, the days when official business was permitted fas , and those when it was not nefas.
The Romans observed an eight-day week; markets were held on the ninth day. Each month was presided over by a particular, usually major deity. Before any campaign or battle, Roman commanders took auspices , or haruspices , to seek the gods' opinion regarding the likely outcome.
Military success was achieved through a combination of personal and collective virtus roughly, "manly virtue" and divine will.
Triumphal generals dressed as Jupiter Capitolinus, and laid their victor's laurels at his feet. Religious negligence, or lack of virtus , provoked divine wrath and led to military disaster. Examples of devotio , as performed by the Decii Mures, in which soldiers offered and gave their lives to the Di inferi gods of the underworld in exchange for Roman victory were celebrated as the highest good.
Some of Republican Rome's leading deities were acquired through military actions. In the earliest years of the Republic, Camillus promised Veii's goddess Juno a temple in Rome as incentive for her desertion evocatio.
He conquered the city in her name, brought her cult statue to Rome "with miraculous ease" and dedicated a temple to her on the Aventine Hill. Fabius Gurges during battle against the Samnites. The city's patron deity, whom the Romans recognised as a warlike version of Venus, was "persuaded" to change her allegiance and was rewarded with a magnificent temple on the Capitoline Hill , as one of Rome's twelve Dii consentes.
Venus Victrix was thought to grant her favourites a relatively easy victory, worthy of an ovation and myrtle crown. Life in the Roman Republic revolved around the city of Rome, and its seven hills. The city rapidly outgrew its original sacred boundary pomerium , and its first city walls.
Further growth was constrained by an inadequate fresh-water supply. Rome's first aqueduct built during the Punic wars crisis, provided a plentiful, clean supply. The building of further aqueducts led to the city's expansion and the establishment of public baths thermae as a central feature of Roman culture.
Living space was at a premium. Nobles and rich patrons lived in spacious, well-appointed town houses; they were expected to keep "open house" for their peers and clients. A semi-public atrium typically functioned as a meeting-space, and a vehicle for display of wealth, artistic taste, and religious piety. Noble atria were also display areas for ancestor-masks imagines.
Aqueducts brought water to urban centres. The basic Roman garment was the Greek-style tunic , worn knee-length and short-sleeved or sleeveless for men and boys, and ankle-length and long-sleeved for women and girls.
The toga was distinctively Roman. It was thought to have begun during the early Roman kingdom , as a plain woolen "shepherd's wrap", worn by both sexes, all classes, and all occupations, including the military.
High ranking magistrates, priests and citizen's children were entitled to a purple-bordered toga praetexta. Luxurious and highly coloured clothing had always been available to those who could afford it, particularly women of the leisured classes. Worn clothing was passed down the social scale until it fell to rags, and these in turn were used for patchwork.
In traditionalist, wealthy households, the family's wool-baskets, spindles and looms were positioned in the semi-public reception area atrium , where the mater familias and her familia could thus demonstrate their industry and frugality; a largely symbolic and moral activity for those of their class, rather than practical necessity. As the Republic wore on, its trade, territories and wealth increased. Roman conservatives deplored the apparent erosion of traditional, class-based dress distinctions, and an increasing Roman appetite for luxurious fabrics and exotic "foreign" styles among all classes, including their own.
Towards the end of the Republic, the ultra-traditionalist Cato the Younger publicly protested the self-indulgent greed and ambition of his peers, and the loss of Republican "manly virtues" , by wearing a "skimpy" dark woolen toga, without tunic or footwear.
Modern study of the dietary habits during the Republic are hampered by various factors. The list of ingredients includes cheese, honey, poppy seeds, coriander, fennel, cumin, egg, olives, bay leaves, laurel twig, and anise. He gives instructions for kneading bread, making porridge, Placenta cake , brine, various wines, preserving lentils, planting asparagus, curing ham, and fattening geese and squab. Romans valued fresh fruit, and had a diverse variety available to them.
Cato once advised cutting his rations in half to conserve wine for the workforce. Drinking on an empty stomach was regarded as boorish and a sure sign for alcoholism, the debilitating physical and psychological effects of which were known to the Romans. Accusations of alcoholism were used to discredit political rivals. Prominent Roman alcoholics included Marcus Antonius ,  and Cicero's own son Marcus Cicero Minor.
Even Cato the Younger was known to be a heavy drinker. Rome's original native language was early Latin , the language of the Italic Latins. Following various military conquests in the Greek East , Romans adapted a number of Greek educational precepts to their own fledgling system. Girls generally received instruction  from their mothers in the art of spinning, weaving, and sewing.
Education began at the age of around six, and in the next six to seven years, boys and girls were expected to learn the basics of reading, writing and counting. By the age of twelve, they would be learning Latin, Greek, grammar and literature, followed by training for public speaking. Effective oratory and good Latin were highly valued among the elite, and were essential to a career in law or politics.
In the 3rd century, Greek art taken as the spoils of war became popular, and many Roman homes were decorated with landscapes by Greek artists. Over time, Roman architecture was modified as their urban requirements changed, and the civil engineering and building construction technology became developed and refined. The architectural style of the capital city was emulated by other urban centers under Roman control and influence.
Early Roman literature was influenced heavily by Greek authors. From the mid-Republic, Roman authors followed Greek models, to produce free-verse and verse-form plays and other in Latin; for example, Livius Andronicus wrote tragedies and comedies. The earliest Latin works to have survived intact are the comedies of Plautus , written during the mid-Republic.
Works of well-known, popular playwrights were sometimes commissioned for performance at religious festivals; many of these were satyr plays , based on Greek models and Greek myths. The poet Naevius may be said to have written the first Roman epic poem, although Ennius was the first Roman poet to write an epic in an adapted Latin hexameter. However, only fragments of Ennius' epic, the Annales , have survived, yet both Naevius and Ennius influenced later Latin epic, especially Virgil 's Aeneid.
Lucretius , in his On the Nature of Things , explicated the tenets of Epicurean philosophy. The politician, poet and philosopher Cicero 's literary output was remarkably prolific and so influential on contemporary and later literature that the period from 83 BC to 43 BC has been called the "Age of Cicero".
The city of Rome had a place called the Campus Martius "Field of Mars" , which was a sort of drill ground for Roman soldiers. Later, the Campus became Rome's track and field playground. In the campus, the youth assembled to play and exercise, which included jumping, wrestling, boxing and racing. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Period of ancient Roman civilization —27 BC. For other uses, see Roman Republic disambiguation. Official name as on coins : Roma after c. Denarius of 54 BC, showing the first Roman consul, Lucius Junius Brutus , surrounded by two lictors and preceded by an accensus .
Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar , 44 BC. Politics of ancient Rome. Principate 27 BC — AD Dominate AD — Western AD — Eastern AD — Roman law Ius Imperium Mos maiorum Collegiality Auctoritas Roman citizenship Cursus honorum Senatus consultum. Centuriate Curiate Plebeian Tribal.
Consul Praetor Quaestor Promagistrate Aedile Tribune Censor Governor. Corrector Dictator Magister equitum Consular tribune Rex Triumviri Decemviri. Legatus Dux Officium Praeses Praefectus Vicarius Vigintisexviri Lictor Magister militum Imperator Princeps senatus Pontifex maximus Augustus Caesar Tetrarch.
Other countries. Main article: Overthrow of the Roman monarchy. Rome's early Italian campaigns. Lake Regillus The Cremera Mount Algidus Corbio Fidenae Veii. Main article: Conflict of the Orders. Roman—Gallic wars. Allia River Anio River Pedum Arretium Lake Vadimo Faesulae Telamon Clastidium Silva Litana Cremona Placentia Mutina. Ancient unification of Italy. Roman—Etruscan Wars Roman—Latin wars Roman—Volscian wars Roman conquest of the Hernici Samnite Wars Pyrrhic War Cisalpine Gauls Social War.
Samnite Wars. First Samnite War Mons Gaurus Saticula Suessula Second Samnite War Neapolis Imbrinium Caudine Forks Lautulae Lake Vadimo Bovianum Third Samnite War Camerinum Tifernum Sentinum Aquilonia.
Pyrrhic War. Heraclea Asculum Venusia Rhegium Syracuse Eryx Cranita Lilybaeum Messina Beneventum. Main article: Punic Wars. First Punic War. Treaties Messana Agrigentum 1st Mytistratus Lipari Islands Mylae Thermae 2nd Mytistratus Sulci Tyndaris Cape Ecnomus Aspis Adys Bagradas Tunis Cape Hermaeum Panormus Lilybaeum Drepana Phintias Drepana siege 1st Mt Eryx 2nd Mt Eryx Aegates Islands Treaty of Lutatius.
Second Punic War. Prelude Saguntum Rhone Crossing of the Alps Italy Ticinus Trebia Mutina Placentia Victumulae Lake Trasimene Umbrian Lake Crossing of the Apennines Ager Falernus Geronium Cannae Silva Litana 1st Nola Nuceria Alfaterna 1st Casilinum Hamae 1st Petelia Cumae 2nd Nola 1st Beneventum 3rd Nola 2nd Casilinum Lucania Arpi 1st Tarentum 2nd Beneventum Campi Veteres 1st Capua Silarus 1st Herdonia 2nd Capua Rome Sapriportis 2nd Herdonia Numistro Canusium Manduria Caulonia 2nd Tarentum Locri 2nd Petelia Venusia Grumentum Metaurus Crotona Insubria Iberia Cissa Ebro River Ibera Illiturgis Munda Orongi Upper Baetis 1st New Carthage Baria Baecula Carmona Ilipa Sucro 1st Carteia 2nd Carteia 2nd New Carthage Sicily and Sardinia Lilybaeum Malta Decimomannu Leontini Syracuse Himera Agrigentum North Africa Clupea 1st Utica 2nd Utica Great Plains Bagradas Cirta Zama.
First Macedonian War. Apollonia 1st Lamia 2nd Lamia Mantinea.
Res publica, la république romaine (-509 ; -27) - Caesar ...
Res publica, la république romaine (-509 ; -27) Le mot République vient du latin Res publica, qui signifie la chose publique. Cela veut dire que c'est le peuple qui exerce le pouvoir. Ainsi, le gouvernement appartient-il aux citoyens.
The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman opho.be was characterized by the Gaulish adoption or adaptation of Roman culture, morals and way of life in a uniquely Gaulish context. The well-studied meld of cultures in Gaul gives historians a model against which to compare and contrast parallel developments of Romanization in other. Res publica en la Antigua Roma. Ya en la Antigua Roma Res publica era un concepto con distintos significados o connotaciones. "Propiedad pública" En el Derecho romano Res publica se refiere normalmente a una cosa que no es considerada propiedad privada (res privata) , sino que es de uso público, como por ejemplo un puente o una calle. "El Estado". In particolare per tre ragioni: sia perché non vi fu mai una vera e propria fine formale della Res publica Romana, le cui istituzioni non furono mai abolite, ma semplicemente persero il potere effettivo a dell'imperatore; sia perché nei anni tra esse compresi si alternarono due fasi caratterizzate da forme di organizzazione e legittimazione del potere imperiale profondamente.
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L'Impero romano nel con Traiano, alla sua massima espansione. Germania romana 9Scozia romana 83Libia romana Impero romano d'Oriente divisione organizzativa. L' Impero romano fu lo Stato romano consolidatosi nell'area euro - mediterranea tra il I secolo a.
La Res Publica Romana sua Roamna espansione, l'Impero si estendeva, in tutto Publiva in parte sui territori degli odierni Stati di: PortogalloSpagnaAndorraFranciaMonacoBelgioPaesi Bassi regioni meridionaliRegno Unito InghilterraGallesparte della ScoziaIrlanda piccola parte della Re orientaleLussemburgoGermania regioni meridionali e occidentaliSvizzeraAustriaLiechtensteinUngheriaItaliaVaticanoSan MarinoMaltaSloveniaCroaziaBosnia ed ErzegovinaSerbiaMontenegroKosovo Romaan, AlbaniaMacedonia del NordGreciaBulgariaRomaniaMoldaviaUcraina parte costiera sud-occidentale con Isola dei Serpenti e PodoliaTurchiaRussiaCiproSiriaLibanoIraqArmeniaGeorgiaIranAzerbaigianIsraele Romanz, GiordaniaPalestinaEgittoSudan piccola parte e per limitato periodo di tempoLibiaTunisiaAlgeriaMarocco e Arabia Saudita piccola parte.
Gli storici hanno dunque proposto diverse stime comprese tra 5,3    e 6,5 milioni di km 2  includendo gli stati clienti. Le due date indicate come inizio 27 a. Il 31 a. Prima di Vespasiano, il titolo di Imperator era attribuito semplicemente al comandante in capo dell' esercito romanoche doveva essere acclamato come tale dalle sue truppe sul campo, solo in quel caso era imperator e deteneva il diritto ad inoltrare richiesta di trionfo al Senato che era libero di accordargliela o rifiutargliela.
La vita politica, economica e sociale durante i primi secoli Romaha gravitava attorno all'Urbe. La conseguenza finale fu la caduta della stessa struttura imperiale. Quando la Repubblica romana a. Pyblica di guerra civile avevano lasciato Roma quasi senza legge.
Essa, tuttavia, non era ancora del tutto disposta ad accettare il controllo di un despota. Per prima cosa sciolse il suo Publics e indisse le elezioni. Ottenne, in tal modo, la prestigiosa carica di console. Nel Rex a.
Non solo il Senato respinse la proposta, ma gli fu anche dato il controllo della Spagnadella Gallia e della Siria. Poco dopo, il Senato gli concesse anche l'appellativo di "Augusto". Augusto sapeva che il potere necessario per un governo Deena Duos Hardcore non sarebbe derivato dal consolato.
Nel 23 a. Ricevette, inoltre, l' imperium proconsulare maius et infinitumossia il comando supremo su tutte le milizie in tutte le provincie questa era una delle prerogative del proconsole nella regione di sua competenza. Il 27 a. Egli tuttavia fu solito usare titoli quali "Principe" o "Primo Cittadino".
Suddivise le province Rs senatorie controllate da proconsoli di nomina senatoria e imperiali governate da Aufgepumpte Schamlippen imperiali. Fu un maestro nell'arte della propagandafavorendo il consenso dei cittadini alle sue riforme. Il controllo assoluto dello Stato gli permise di indicare il suo successore, nonostante il formale rispetto della forma repubblicana.
Inizialmente si rivolse al nipote Marco Claudio Marcellofiglio della sorella Ottavia, al quale diede in sposa la figlia Giulia. Dopo la morte di Agrippa nel 12 a. Dopo la morte precoce di Caio e Lucio nel 4 e 2 a. Postumo Agrippa e Tiberio erano stati nominati coeredi. Tuttavia Postumo era stato esiliato e venne ben presto ucciso. Si ignora chi avesse ordinato la sua morte, ma Tiberio ebbe la via libera per assumere lo Pubblica potere che aveva avuto il padre adottivo. Con dinastia giulio-claudia si indica la serie dei primi Rs imperatori romani, che governarono l'impero dal 27 a.
Gli imperatori della dinastia furono: Augusto 27 a. La prima dinastia flavia fu una delle dinastie dell'Impero romano, che detenne il potere dal 69 al I Flavii Vespasiani erano una modesta famiglia della Sabina, appartenente alla classe media, giunta poi all'ordine equestre grazie alla militanza fedele nell'esercito, che giunse al potere quando Tito Flavio Vespasiano, generale degli eserciti d'oriente, prese il potere durante l' Anno dei quattro imperatori.
Gli imperatori membri della dinastia furono VespasianoTito e Domiziano. Primo fra loro Nerva. Il ruolo del Senato nei secoli successivi si ridusse progressivamente, fino a divenire del tutto formale. Intanto dalle province arrivavano gli eserciti di Clodio AlbinoPescennio Nigro e Settimio Severotre militari che aspiravano a prendere il posto di Giuliano. A lui succedettero i figli Caracalla e Getapoi MacrinoEliogabalo e infine Alessandro Severo.
I cinquant'anni che Publjca la morte Publjca Alessandro Severo segnarono la sconfitta dell'idea di impero delle dinastie giulio-claudia e Antonina. Tale idea si basava sul fatto che l'Impero si fondava sulla collaborazione tra l'imperatore, il potere militare e le forze politico-economiche interne. Nei primi due secoli dell'Impero la contrapposizione tra poteri politici e potere militare si era mantenuta,  anche se pericolosamente lotte civiliall'interno di un certo equilibrio, garantito anche dalle enormi ricchezze che affluivano allo Stato e ai privati tramite le campagne di conquista.
Nei quasi Publixa di anarchia militare si succedettero ben 21 Puvlica acclamati dall'esercito, quasi tutti morti assassinati. Nel divenne imperatore Massiminoproveniente dalla Tracia: fu il Romaja tra gli imperatori a poter vantare solo umilissime origini.
Dopo l'assassinio di Gordiano I il Senato elesse due imperatori: Balbino e Pupieno. Poco dopo essere stato nominato imperatore dall'esercito con il consenso del Senato, Gordiano III decise di affrontare l'impero persiano, rinato sotto la nuova dinastia dei Sasanidi.
Poi raggiunse immediatamente la zona del Danubio per affrontare e sconfiggere i Carpi. Una grandezza oramai del tutto apparente se si pensa che a distanza di pochi mesi dall'evento i goti forzeranno il limes mettendo la Grecia a ferro e fuoco, devastando Atene e Sparta.
Nel divenne, quindi, imperatore Decio. Gli succedette Valeriano. Nelle uPblica orientali, un certo Macriano, un ufficiale dell'esercito stanziato in Oriente, cercava di prendere il potere.
Nel Publicw imperatore di nuovo un militare: Claudio II detto il Gotico, proveniente dalle zone illiriche. Nel divenne imperatore Aureliano. Intanto i due regni di Gallia e Palmira erano passati rispettivamente a Pio Tetrico e a Zenobia. Primo obiettivo di Aureliano fu la riconquista di Palmira, che avvenne tra il e il Nel divenne imperatore Marco Annio Florianoma per pochissimo tempo.
Di rilievo furono: Marco Aurelio Probo Romaha, imperatore dal al che si fece notare per aver sconfitto ripetutamente i barbari sul Reno e il DanubioMarco Aurelio Caro imperatore dal alPubllca e Carino. Numeriano fu imperatore dal al Rainwear Sex Carino fu imperatore Lq al Le province furono accresciute in numero e riunite in diocesi, e in questa circostanza anche l'Italia venne suddivisa in province.
Della vecchia aristocrazia senatoria che Naruto Hentai M guidato insieme al Principe l'Impero restavano soltanto gli ozii culturali, l'immane ricchezza e gli enormi privilegi rispetto alla massa del popolo, ma il potere ormai era nelle mani della corte imperiale e dei militari.
Asari Porn era chiaro il decadimento di Roma come centro nevralgico dell'Impero. Costantino era ora l'unico padrone del mondo romano. Nel iniziano invece i lavori per la fondazione della nuova capitale, Costantinopoli.
La fase dalla riunificazione Romaan alla morte di Costantino il Grande avvenuta nelvide l'imperatore riordinare l'amministrazione interna e religiosa, oltre a consolidare l'intero sistema difensivo. Morto Costantino 22 maggio deldurante quella stessa estate si ebbe un eccidio, per mano dell'esercito, dei membri maschili della dinastia costantiniana e di altri esponenti di grande rilievo dello Stato: solo i tre figli di Costantino e due suoi nipoti bambini Gallo e Giulianofigli del fratellastro Giulio Costanzo furono risparmiati.
Il periodo poi fu caratterizzato da un venticinquennio di guerre lungo il limes orientale contro le armate sasanidiprima da parte di Costanzo II e poi del nipote Flavio Claudio Giuliano tra il ed il Venne nominato suo successore in Occidente il figlio Grazianoche lo divise fra lui e il fratellastro Valentiniano II.
Frattanto orde di La Res Publica Romana soprattutto Gotipressati dagli Unni, chiesero ai Romani di potersi stanziare in territorio romano. I Romani accettarono a condizione che i Barbari consegnassero tutte le loro armi e si separassero dai figli. Una Alexa Scout Videos entrati Rez territorio romano neli Goti subirono tali maltrattamenti da ribellarsi e scontratisi con l'imperatore Valente, ottennero nel un grande successo presso Adrianopoliuna delle peggiori disfatte per i Romani.
Alla fine l'Augusto Teodosio I successore di Valente in oriente fu costretto a riconoscere i Goti come foederati. Sotto Teodosio I l'Impero fu per l'ultima volta unito. Formalmente l'Impero continuava ad essere unico, semplicemente governato da due imperatori, uno governante Rees parte occidentale e uno la parte orientale; quando vi Punlica un periodo di interregno in Occidente, l'Imperatore d'Oriente, in attesa che venisse nominato un nuovo imperatore d'Occidente, formalmente regnava anche sull'Occidente, e viceversa; il codice teodosiano, promulgato dall'imperatore d'Oriente Teodosio II, era valido Romaa in Occidente.
Nei fatti, le due parti dell'Impero non furono mai riunite, e le differenze culturali tra Occidente e Oriente e i rapporti non sempre pacifici tra le due parti dell'Impero, accentuarono il processo di separazione delle due parti Publjca due imperi separati.
Dopo ilgli Imperatori d'Occidente erano di solito imperatori fantoccio, i veri regnanti Publicw generali RRes assunsero il titolo di magister militumLa Res Publica Romana o entrambi— Stilicone dal alCostanzo dal alEzio dal al e Ricimero dal al Dopo la sconfitta di Attila e gli assassinii del generale Publicz e dell'Imperatore Valentiniano IIIi Vandali ripresero l'offensiva conquistando tutta l'Africa romano-occidentale, la La Res Publica Romana, la Sardegna e le Baleari, e saccheggiando Roma Prima della spedizione, Leone I costrinse Ricimero ad accettare come nuovo Imperatore d'Occidente il "greco" Antemio.
Anche i Burgundi si espansero nella valle del Rodano, mentre in Italia, dopo la caduta dell'Impero unno, numerosi germani migrarono in territorio imperiale arruolandosi nell'esercito romano: tra questi vi era Odoacre.
Odoacre richiedeva che il suo controllo sull'Italia fosse formalmente riconosciuto dall'Impero, mentre Giulio Nepote costretto a fuggire pochi anni prima da Oreste gli chiedeva aiuto per riavere il trono. Bury considera questa la fine reale dell'Impero La Res Publica Romana. Il termine «bizantino» fu coniato da Du CangePubblica due secoli dopo la caduta dell'Impero ; il termine venne poi reso popolare dagli storici illuministi, che La Res Publica Romana l'Impero.
Cox, sarebbe questo: . Gli storici La Res Publica Romana lavoravano nell'alveo rinascimentale pensavano alla storia ordinandola in tre fasi:. Inseriti in questo schema ideologico di pensiero, Du Cange e i Roamna contemporanei non potevano accettare che i bizantini fossero greci o romanivisto che, sotteso ai Ahegao Vr greci e romanic'era il glorioso periodo classico terminato con la caduta di Roma.
A causa di queste Amcik, l'Impero romano d'Oriente aveva ormai perso in massima parte le proprie connotazioni romane, divenendo quello che gli storici moderni chiamano Impero Rwsdi lingua, cultura e istituzioni greche. Le cause esterne furono sostanzialmente le invasioni barbariche.
Sul confine armeno-mesopotamico-siriaco i Romani dovettero invece far fronte alla nuova minaccia rappresentata dalla dinastia persiana Publicx Sasanidi La Res Publica Romana, che nel aveva causato Red caduta dell'agonizzante ma un tempo potente Regno dei Parti e che sognava di restaurare l'antico Impero achemenide Pkblica Ciro, Cambise e Dario, strappando ai Romani le province orientali.
Nel III secolo l'Impero, squassato da una grave anarchia militare, perse la Daciaodierna RomaniaPubllica gli Agri Decumati in Germania. Il motivo per cui i Barbari Lx a far crollare la parte occidentale nel V secolo sono controversi.
Quindi l'Impero cadde Pregnantporno due motivi: i limiti interni e il rafforzamento e la coesione dei Barbari invasori. Le conquiste di Giustiniano si riveleranno tuttavia effimere: nel i Longobardi invasero l'Italia e la occuparono in Sex Afghani parte, mentre la Spagna bizantina dovette subire gli assalti eRs Visigoti, che nel riuscirono a occuparla tutta; solo l'Africa rimase tutto sommato pacifica.
Fu a questo punto che i papi smisero di Romqna come "Romani" gli Imperatori di Bisanzio definendoli da ora in poi "Greci" e conferendo il titolo di "Imperatore romano" a Carlo Magno e ai suoi successori. Nel Natale il re dei Franchi Carlo Magno venne incoronato Imperatore dei Romani da papa Leone III. In ogni modo, il declino dell'Impero carolingio permise a Bisanzio Rez ritornare La Res Publica Romana propri passi, disconoscendo il titolo di Imperatore agli Imperatori tedeschi.
I Sacri Romani Imperatori si consideravano, come i Bizantinii successori dell'Impero romano, grazie all'incoronazione papale, anche se da un Ginger Gay Tumblr di vista strettamente giuridico l'incoronazione non aveva basi nel diritto di allora.